Sunday, October 30, 2016

Fresh Start, New Beginnings

   After the end of the Second World War, Japan, under the removal order of the GHQ (Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers), had to give up and destroy all military technology and equipment from quickly dissolving Empire. Including with this demand were all Japanese tanks and armoured vehicles kept at home and afar. Documents of old war tank projects were destroyed if they had not been burned during the fire bombings of the United States during the closing stages of the war. To replace the demolished Army of Japan, the United States enacted a National Police Reserve with the purpose of providing national security within the nation in 1950. Two years after the creation of the group, the United States donated M24 Chaffee light tanks to the tank company split between each of the 4 divisions of the Police Reserve.

As the tensions in the Korean Peninsula intensified, Japan came to understand the Korean M24 light tank was insufficient in dealing with the Soviet T-34/85 tank on the battlefield. In 1954 the U.S. and Japan Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement was signed, allowing Japan to ensure its own security via a National Defense Force. This gave Japan the duty to protect its country from foreign threats. When the communist threat was at an alarming high, the US provided 200 units of M4A3E8 (Easy Eight) Sherman tanks. The arrival of the M4 came with good feedback initially. However, the SDF realized the failure the M4 provided in dealing with Japan's defense requirements. The constant need of maintenance and the outdated technology in a new setting proved a hassle for the Self Defense Force. Japan had originally favored the M24 light tank as it was capable of maneuvering the hilly terrain of both Korea and Japan thanks to its light weight. It's armament was obsolete, however.

Japan started to look at the US's modern arsenal of M47 and M48 tanks with their 90mm anti tank guns. However, both tanks were too heavy to adopt and that they would have failed substantially in the given circumstances. This came to resolution in 1955 as the Americans and Japanese agreed to share mutual beneficiaries to aid one another in technological advancements. The Japanese Ground Staff Office then submitted their requirements on a new tank design in January of 1955. Other ideas were present, but in the end the same goal was present. Keeping the weight low, the official project's goals were a weight of 25 tons, with a strong engine output and low ground pressure overall. Coupled with this equipped with a high penetration 90mm anti tank cannon. Provided with good depression, off road capabilities, and managing terrain such as beach heads and rice fields.

Development of the new tank began in June of 1955. The official military request were 2 prototypes. This was then raised to 5 by the years end. The contract for the tank was given to Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Japan Steel Works. The title of the tank project was ST-A (tank A). Developed alongside this project was Japan's second tank tree route with the tank destroyer themed Type60 Recoilless Rifle. The ST-A underwent changes in its design throughout May as the weight of the vehicle was increased to 30 tons. This change was specified for additional armour to counter anti tank missiles and other anti tank infantry weapons. The new plans for the tank were as follows;

Crew:    4
Full Weight:    Under 30 tons
Length:    about 6.0m
Height:    under 2.8m
Width:    about 2.0m
Ground Clearance:    0.40m
Main Armament:    90mm
Gun Depression:    -15
Rounds:    50
Secondary Armament:    7.62 MGx1
Engine Type:    Diesel air-cooled
Horse Power:    600hp
Horse Power per ton:    20hp/ton
Top Speed:    50km/h
Wading Depth:    over 1.2m
Drive Type:    Rear wheel drive desired
Steering Type:     Hydraulic desired
Ground Pressure:    0.8kg/cm2
Range Finder:     Yes
Infrared vision:     Yes

These placeholder stats were approved for consideration and soon after, the Technical Research Department came together to discuss the idea. This meeting consisted of members of the Ground Staff office, Procurement Head office, and the Defense Agency Bureau Weapons Division. Added to this group was the Japan Weapons Industry Group. Guest to the meeting was Tomio Hara, the former Lieutenant General during the war. Here the decision was to have two tank proposals. The two were classed by weight, 20-25t and 25-30t. The lighter model was originally planned with a 76mm, and kept the original idea of having a light and mobile tank, favored by the Ground Staff Office.

However, the advantage of the heavier design with more armour and a larger cannon tipped the balance. The idea for the 30t project was to give similar maneuverability whilst allowing better protection and firepower.

When the MSA was signed and the US and Japanese lent aid to one another, Japan initially desired a loaned 90mm, used on the M36 tank destroyer. Ultimately this would add weight and make the concept of a lightweight tank hazy. Additionally, the head of the Ground Staff Office was transferred to the Technical Research Department for furthering the heavy tank plan. This effectively scuttled any proposal for a lighter vehicle to come into play.

32 ton mockup by the Technical Research Department

By October, both tank ideas were produced in mockup form. The finalized weights they came up with were 32t and 35t vehicles respectively. Despite requesting a lightweight tank, the features the General Staff Office had increased the final weight to 35 tons. Both designs were presented at the 5th Technical Council of 1955. The names given to these tanks were ST-AI and ST-AII. After the presentation, the JGSDF ordered a prototype of the 32t mockup and further studies. This would eventually lead to the ST-A1 tank, the predecessor prototype to the Type61 MBT. The order given to Mitsubishi was as follows;

"A vehicle weighing 35 tons, provided with a top speed of 45 kmh, given 90mm anti tank gun, and a height as low as 2.5 meters."

Formal construction of the ST-A1 and ST-A2 began in 1956. The ST-A1 followed the original order and was designed with a low profile, built using a test steel plating. It was completed in December of 1956.  The ST-A2was larger than the ST-A1 and had a height of 2.5 meters instead of the 1's 2.2. It had an air-cooled diesel engine, torsion bar suspension, torque converter such as a power steering apparatus, and was completed in 1957. It was built using standard SDF steel. However, due to the engine not being produced and still in development the prototype was given the Mitsubishi DL10T V12 liquid-cooled diesel engine (500hp / 2,000rpm) instead.


During trials of the two prototypes, both were deemed inadequate and did not meet expected performance requirements. While both had ultimately failed, the ST-A2 was accepted for further design evaluations. The ST-A1 prototype had low vehicle profile, but this meant that the vehicle could not traverse its turret fully to the rear without elevating the gun. Hence the length of the tank had to be extended to avoid further issues. The suspension wheels became narrower as the track length extended. This increased the ground resistance, which in return caused problems traversing. The prototype had failed the trial.

ST-A2  prototype during trials - December 1956

With the development of the two medium prototypes. The original plan for a lightweight tank was overshadowed and forgotten. However, these new tanks would lead to the concept of a Japanese MBT rather than just a specific goal vehicle as originally sought. These are the routes that led to the creation of the Type61 Main Battle Tank.

In a Part 2 I will cover the further prototype testing of the series and the service implementation of the Type61.

Monday, October 24, 2016

Blog Update: 10/25/16

 Hey everyone! Here with you all today to give a blog update and some things that are up and about in regards to the Blog. But I would like to firstly thank you all for your given interest in the blog thus far. To the hundreds of you all scattered across the globe, I am glad this is something the good many of you find interesting - I will continue to satisfy your needs in due time. This blog has blew up on various communities, especially the Russian outlets. Many there seem to be confused on this blog so today I'll give you the run down on what my blog's goals are and who owns it.

Naturally I, Seon, own the rights to Sensha in all forms. This is my outlet for you, the communities of not only War Thunder... but to those interested in history. I had originally dedicated this blog to solely War Thunder news involving Japan, since thats my field of work with Gaijin. But please understand thats where the line is drawn. I am not a Gaijin employee, and this is not their website. It is mine, and mine to share with everyone my work. Gaijin does not sponsor this in any fashion... just my way of reaching out and clarifying and informing those interested with Japanese tanks. The bulk of my prior encounters with people are primarily on the War Thunder Forum and Community Center. Sensha is my way of scouting the horizon and reach new groups of people willing to learn.

After talking to a friend of mine, current writer of the Overlord Blog, David Lister, he suggested to me that I not just focus on game related content. But rather to share what I know through articles. Thanks to his advice I will use this as a hub to collect and share information on Japanese tanks so you may come and read, and learn about a subject heavily forgotten and unnoticed. I wanted to get this out of the way so I can dedicate my free time to sharing what I have with you all. Hope you enjoy!

By the way.... a little gift from me!  :)

Napkin tank drawing intensifies~

Yes, this is the original conception drawing of the O-I tank. This was the birth of the box tank's history. Hidden within the documents of the tank project.

Thursday, October 20, 2016

Between a Bolt and a Hard Place

   In modern interpretations, Japan is often seen as designing tanks held together by numerous bolts and rivets. A concept considered elegant in the inter-war period, but outdated during the war as new and more reliable methods of cast and welds become mass preferred upon in competing nations. The most iconic tanks grouped with Japan are vehicles designed and manufactured as early as 1934, nearly 7 years prior to the introduction of the infamous American M4 Sherman and Russian T-34. By the time the Second World War initiated, Japan had since started to deviate from their reliance on bolted tanks.

However, when you see the O-I up and about, the first thing you may notice are the bolts blanketing the tank's entirety. Don't be confused, the bolts on this superheavy vehicle are only a camouflage for the secrets lying underneath the steel. In first glance, the tank's design comes off as simple, flawed, and simply over excessive. It's design, albeit massive and complex, was given a simple and straightforward goal. That being as an armoured bunker in Manchuria, not as a combat tank to engage alone in the field.

FineMold's O-I 150t model - The company that purchased the newly shown O-I reports.

The O-I was conceived out of the necessity to produce a mobile bunker to contest the Soviet Union in the then-expected Second Russo-Japanese conflict. The flaw with the routine bunker or pillbox is that you cannot maneuver and relocate them with the frontline constantly being pushed. Japan would need a sustainable fortress that could push with the infantry and advance further into the USSR without the need to construct more immobile bunkers with resources already scarce.

Japan relied on the North Expeditionary Doctrine when dealing with the threat of the USSR. After the defeat at Khalkhin Gol, the Government practically outcasted the Imperial Japanese Army for embarrassing Japan while its Navy met unrivaled. However, to counter their prior loss they had planned to once again prepare for another conflict that had seemed inevitable with the initiation of the German invasion of Poland and declining of relations. The tank was designed to withstand the guns of the Soviet Union's arsenal, while all the same countering with use of a 15cm howtizer against enemy positions and advancing armour.

Type96 15cm Howtizer - Main armament of O-I

O-I's main armament was chosen to be the newly produced Type96 Howitzer. A 4,140 kilogram cannon built and pressed into service in 1937, the cannon saw extensive use against the National Revolutionary Army in China and during the border conflicts with the Soviet Union. The cannon was picked to accommodate the need of targeting enemy fortified positions to cover the Infantry's pushes. By design, this is not an anti tank armament, it does not have wide options of anti tank shells with high penetration. The main shell of the howitzer is the Type95 APHE shell, recorded with 540 m/s and an average penetration of 125mm at a range of 230 meters. The cannon saw useage of both the Type92 HE and High penetrating HE shells respectively.

Type1 47mm anti tank gun
The tank was not only given the 15cm howitzer, however. Located on the front hull, two turrets with a Experimental 47mm's were present. Today we know the cannon as the main gun of the Chi-Ha Kai. This cannon was introduced in 1940 and became the nation's primary gun for anti tank measures. With penetration ranging from 80 to 114.3mm depending on the individual shell type.  The weapon’s barrels were reinforced with steel to secure them to the tank, due to the standard gun not adequately fitting into the turret.

The O-I was designed with 150mm of total armour thickness in both the front and rear of the vehicle. However, the production of the tank proved difficult to manufacture a 150mm plate, so to counter this crossroad, Mitsubishi split the plate into two separate slabs of 75mm armour thickness. The second 75mm plate would be bolted and sealed onto the existed plate on the vehicle to provide the expected over all thickness of the tank. The side armor on the hull superstructure was 70 millimeters thick. the base having standard thickness of 35mm, supported by an additional 35mm plate bolted on. There were eight wheel-supporting beams located on both sides of the suspension area which added an additional 40 millimeters of armor to specific locations on the side of the O-I. On the lwoer half of the side, a measurement of 110mm of armour thickness is present. 40 ladder pieces were placed around the tank to provide crew with the ability to climb onto of the vehicle with ease.

Layout of the armour of the O-I, befitting of the name "mobile pillbox".

The tank had a length of 10.1 meters, width of 4.8 meters, and a height of 3.6 meters. The dimensions of the vehicle closely matched those of the Panzer VIII Maus. These proportions were massive and required the equally large amount of crew to operate it. The crew consisted of 11 manned positions. These were; 1 Driver, 1 Co Driver, 3 Main turret gunners, 1 Commander, 2 secondary turret operators, 1 rear turret operator, 1 Radio signaler, and 1 Engineer to maintain the tank. The tank was both designed and built with two inner armor plates to divide the interior into three sections; walls with two doors each and an ultimate thickness of 20mm. This allowed the crew and modules to remain relatively safe while the structure was kept safe with supporting stands. These supports allowed the interior armor plates to stay stable and also prevented collapse.

 Inside the O-I were two Kawasaki V-12 engines, both located in the rear, parallel lengthwise, to give room for the rear turret operator and transmission. The output of the engine is 550hp, both combined gave the tank an over all of 1100hp. The tank had a 6 gear system and weighed 1020kg. Speed of the tank ranged in 40kmh on flat roads in the 96 ton prototype. Paper speed with 150t weight was 30. The transmission copied that of the Type97 Chi-Ha’s, but used larger parts and gears making the total weight heavier. The vehicle had a coil spring system, with eight 2 wheeled boggies, totaling 16 individual wheels. Truly, a design of high proportions, with little feasibility for the weight of the expectations put on the tank.

This will be a 3 part series covering the O-I superheavy tank. Stay tuned for the final part where I cover what is fake and whats real about the O-I!

Sunday, October 16, 2016

Too big to Stop, Too heavy to Start

   If someone came to you and asked the question; "what comes to mind when you hear the term super-heavy tank?", the average answer would be the notorious Maus or E-100 respectively. Big clunking tanks with large slabs of thick steel and armed with monstrous cannons. The idea of this class of vehicle had lingered on since the First World War, often relegated to the domain of prototypes and experimental designs. It would not be until the inter-war period that the concept captured designers' imaginations and drawing-boards as the 'next big thing' to turn the tide in the wars to come. Japan was no exception; in the dawn of the 40's, this super heavy tank would be known to the public as the O-I.

Outline of the O-I from record books

After 1939, the Imperial Japanese Army quickly came to realize that previous forms of mechanized warfare were proved inefficient after their defeat at Khalkhin Gol.

Development of the super-heavy project was spearheaded by Colonel Hideo Iwakuro, the eventual head of the Ministry of War of Japan (陸軍省 Rikugun-shō). Iwakuro opposed Japan’s advances towards the Soviet Union in 1939, and with the Japanese defeat, he decided to initiate a project to construct a heavily armored tank capable of withstanding large-caliber field cannons. Iwakuro assigned Colonel Murata of the 4th Technical Research Group to design and construct the super heavy tank in 1939. Colonel Murata noted Iwakuro’s words as described;

“I want a huge tank built which can be used as a mobile pillbox in the wide open plains of Manchuria. Top secret.”

“Make the dimensions twice that of today’s tanks.”

The 4th Technical Research Group began designing the super-heavy vehicle throughout 1940, attempting to meet Colonel Iwakuro’s vague instructions on the ultimate goal of the project. By March 1941, the research group had finished initial tank design and was ready to begin construction. The following month, a group of pre-selected engineers were chosen to partake in the building of the super-heavy tank. One recorded engineer was Shigeo Otaka, who stated they were sent to the 4th Technical Research Group’s previous headquarters in Tokyo. There, they were guided through a barracks containing multiple small fitting rooms, where they were to conduct meetings and reports on the progress of construction of the super-heavy vehicle. Towards the end of the barracks facility was a fully-enclosed room devoid of windows, with soundproofed walls to prevent external personnel from overhearing discussions related to the project. Each officer present possessed a portion of the project’s blueprint, which, when assembled, projected the full design of the tank, labeled "Mi-To". The name originated from a collection of the Mitsubishi industry and the city, Tokyo; given to the vehicle to uphold secrecy of the tank’s project.

The "Mi-To" shown when the finalized design was completed.

The chosen engineers voiced their concerns regarding the Mi-To’s design noting that previously, the largest-sized Japanese tank had been the prototype Type95 Heavy in 1934. Issues that had been noted with heavy tank experiments in the years preceding the Mi-To showing Japan’s generally unsuccessful testing on multi-turreted vehicles exceeding the weight of standard armored vehicles. However, with the threat of a second Russo-Japanese conflict becoming more apparent, the project continued despite the engineer’s doubts on the size and mobility of the vehicle.

On April 14th 1941, the engineers began the construction of the Mi-To under secretive means. This entailed privately-made mechanical parts and equipment being shipped to the construction zone. Colonel Murata’s original concept was to complete the super-heavy tank three months after the initiation of Mi-To’s construction. This, ultimately, did not come into fruition; as technical issues on the project began to arise. Due to the limitation on material consumption by the government, the amount of parts that could be secretly shipped-in began to dwindle. By the first month of construction, essential construction resources had been depleted and the issues with the vehicle’s cooling system further caused delays. The construction of the Mi-To was postponed until January 1942, a delay of nine months.

Top - Down assembly of the Mi-To.

After the Mi-To’s construction was resumed, the hull was completed on February 8th 1942. The tank had reached near-completion and was being prepared for mobility testing. Mitsubishi built the four turrets for the tank in May of the same year. Initial assembly of the tank’s armament took place soon after the turret’s superstructures were completed. However; the project once again did not have the necessary resources needed for the few remaining parts required for the final assessment. Due to this, the primary turret was removed as it lacked a 35-millimeter-thick roof plate, which had not yet arrived. Thus, the project was put on standby, until further development could continue. The total weight of the vehicle at the time was 96 tons, due to the lack of remaining structural plates and absent 75mm bolted-on armor.

The date on which the construction of the tank resumed is unknown, although active testing of the tank was scheduled for late 1943. The tank was unveiled to the Imperial Japanese Army’s highest command in 1943, and received a name change to O-I. This followed Japanese naming convention (O translating to Heavy, I for First, making it "First Heavy") that was standard. In his place was Lieutenant Colonel Nakano, Murata's assistant and colleague. Tomio Hara, head of the Sagamia Army Arsenal, was also present. Following the demonstration, senior officials within the IJA requested that field trials begin in August of the same year. The tank was disassembled at 2:00 AM one night in June of 1943 and sent to the Sagami Army Arsenal in Sagamihara, 51 kilometers from Tokyo. The vehicle arrived at the depot in June, and was reassembled and tested on the 1st of August.

Driver's periscope located center front hull.

On the day of the trials, the O-I performed satisfactorily until the second hour of the tests. While maneuvering on off-road terrain, the tank sank into the ground by up to a meter; attempts at traversing the hull to extricate the vehicle proved fruitless, resulting in further sinking due to the vehicle’s suspension coils compressing. The tank was eventually towed out, and further testing was continued on concrete. However, the earlier damage to the suspension resulted in vehicle’s movement damaging the concrete, which in turn, further damaged the suspension bogies to the point that further testing could not continue. The trials were postponed, and later canceled the following day.

Nevertheless, the trials conducted at the testing field were considered to be a success, and the vehicle was deemed ready for use in spite of its flaws. The engineers began disassembly of the tank on the 3rd of August due to resources being limited and the inability to maintain the tank in the field. Disassembly of the tank was completed on August 8th. Two days later, the engineers noted in a log that they were to inspect the parts and conduct research to fix the issues the O-I would face.

Surviving chain link of the prototype.

The fate of the O-I after its field-trials which took place on the 1st of August is unclear. Russian reports claim the Japanese were in possession of a wooden O-I mock-up mounting a Daimler-Benz DB 601A engine in 1945, however other sources point to the scrapping of the remaining parts of the same year. The remains of the O-I reside at the Wakajishi Shrine, with a track link of the prototype still present.

This will be a 3 part series covering the O-I superheavy tank. Stay tuned for the next part!

Friday, October 14, 2016

The Blog and the New Project

    Two weeks ago I announced that I will now be posting on this new blog in order to share with ease to the public on Gaijin's announcements on Japanese Ground Forces. The blog's opening has received great initiatory responses from the War Thunder Live community, and I will continue to use this portal to answer, inform, and communicate to you all in the time to come. Thank you, again for all the support.

Who am I?

    Understandably, there are those who are uninformed on who I am and what I do. My name is Seon Eun Ae, and on War Thunder I go by the alias of Mai_Waffentrager. I started working with Gaijin Entertainment as far as back as May, when they found my community project and I on the Forum and our website. Details kept private aside, I council Japanese Ground Forces and help provide the necessary information in order for them to arrive here in safe hands by visiting the Japanese National Archive for tank and military relating documents. No, this does not mean I can tell you anything Gaijin hasn't already publicized, sorry folks!

A little about my personal self - I'm a UOS student majoring in Political Law and Public Affairs here in Seoul, South Korea (Whilst maintaining semi annual residence in the United States). I'm Korean by blood, despite the often misconception of me being Japanese, I am not. I tend to get confused for being Daigensui, a notable Japanese-Korean figure on the World of Tanks community and the one who got Japanese tanks in Wot. Many conspirators want to claim us one person and accusate each other, but sorry to say we are two different people, albeit friends and colleagues. I have nothing to do with WG's title publicly, and she hasn't the connections with Gaijin like myself.

This New Project

    Now that the community project to get Japanese Ground Forces recognized and implemented has finally came to a finish, this does mean my work with you all has ceased. I am both occupied with real life events and work with Gaijin, But recently I was requested to start work again on a community project to give situational awareness to the community of War Thunder.

As the Blog title implies, in the very neat future I will publicizing a concurrent series, SENSHA. This project will not be directed towards to Gaijin. Rather this is our project for you, the tankers, to have a better understanding of Japanese ground forces and tanks alike. This is a manual, to which I and a small team will visually illustrate to you the lifestyle of the Japanese tank, how they operate, and how to properly care and utilize them in the field whilst providing historical background.

We had decided what better method in appealing to the community than using the iconic Tigerfibel tank manual as a reference in this project. This manual and comic alike is being worked on at this moment and gathering assets in preparation on going fully public.

 Unfortunately while we have a team of outstanding artists (such as CmdNomad and teo_storm1) to make dedicated illustrations for the manual, we are lacking in character-preference artists to provide the finishing spot. However in short time we will release the first issue of SENSHA and hope you all will enjoy it and support its rapid continuation.

 We are steadily preparing the project for you all, so stay tuned to upcoming news!

Sunday, October 2, 2016

IgroMir and Japanese Tanks

They're finally here, War Thunder

Remember Gaijin teasing the community with that important Ground Forces addition yesterday? Yes... Japanese Tanks are coming.

     IgroMir 2016 is now over, and with it came a surprise to many, Imperial Steel. We as the community have demanded, and Gaijin is going to deliver to you all what you have wanted for so long. An Independent Japanese Ground Forces branch in War Thunder... who would have thought? Just over a year ago Game Developer Viacheslav Bulannikov told the community a Japanese tree would not come to fruition. They called the tree "unlikely" and "difficult". As a reaction, I quickly put up my own website for the project to get Gaijin to change their minds on their decision.

 Only a few months prior to now, Gaijin sought me out and asked if I would consider aiding them in a Japanese tree. The results of this have now shown... and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future. Japan will have their own Ground Forces, their own tanks, and their own feel. Not under another nation as premiums, not just a premium only tree, but their own standard. This is something that only became possible through the sheer dedication of my team and most of all, you as the community. For not only giving your support, but demanding it from Gaijin. Well I am proud to tell you;

We made it... War Thunder!

   Aside from the personal stuff, what's here and what do we know? Well, not much at the moment unfortunately. What is public and confirmed in a definite manner is that we have two tanks; Ha-Go and Chi-Ha Kai. Yes, only two renders have been shown but don't worry this was Gaijin's little surprise to everyone confirmed that it's going to happen. So no worries. In the meantime I'll give you the rundown of the tank vehicles that we all know Gaijin didn't put major emphasis into.

Type97 Chi-Ha Kai

 Chi-Ha Kai - Known to be the most recognizable tanks of the Imperial Japanese Army. A medium tank out of nature, the Kai is an upgraded (Hence - Kai) model of the standard Type97 Chi-ha. Equipped with the Type1 47mm, this anti-tank cannon was designed and built to handle Allied armour after the battle of Nomonhan. This deadly 47mm gun was recorded with excelling penetration for its caliber for its time and was used extensively as the primary armament preferred by infantry. Allied armour found the first encounters with the gun to be devasating, going as far as to nickname the Chi-Ha Kai the "Tigers of Corregidor" for their maiden operation against the United States at the island of Corregidor. 

Allied intelligence first labeled the Kai as a heavy tank, but after being exposed to the vehicle in multiple operations, they soon realized its glaring weakpoints and deemed it the proper "medium" it always has been.

It has a deadly cannon for its era, but what of its armour and protection? You cannot have both, and as a result Mitsubishi constructed the units under the Army's requests of a mobile medium tank with standard armour instead of adopting a heavier standard. The maximum armour protection on the Kai is a whopping 50mm, yes... 50mm. Relying on armour is fruitless in the field. And as such you must rely on your gun depression of -15 degrees to your advantage.

Type95 Ha-Go

Ha-Go -  An also iconic tank that to many comes off as insignificant and petty. But to those who have gone against the light tank are unpleasantly aware of its potential. Designed during the early 30's, the tank was to correct lessons learned in China. The Type89 I-Go was slow, and often had issues keeping up with the rapidly pushing infantry. As a result the Type95 Ha-Go was pushed into service as the new main infantry support vehicle for its beginning years.

 Its light weight and powerful engine for the time gave it daring speeds of 40 kmh on roads and the flat fields of Manchukuo. Being able to compete with the M2 Light and M3 Stuart. It's armament was the Type94 37mm gun. Petty to most, the Type94 was used extensively in China where hostile armour was scarce. It began an infantry's preferred tool in clearing resistance. Its initial encounters with tanks resulted in a surprising success for the Japanese at Khalkhin Gol with the soviet encounters of BT light tanks. While the operation ended in Japanese defeat, the armour battle was won by Japan by the landslide.

For now this is all we know publicly in regards to Japanese armour. Stay tuned to the official War Thunder outlets for upcoming information! Sensha is a personal blog for me, Seon Eun Ae, to convey my thoughts about Japanese tanks to you. I will keep this blog up-to-date on news released and give you the rundown of everything.

Until next time, everyone!